Meta-Community Phylogeny Simulation 101


Example meta-community phylogeny. Circles are proportional to the number of individuals at the end of the run. Look! The species that died out isn’t anywhere at the end! I used rainbow to make this look slightly more appealing; I admit it’s not the prettiest figure in history.

Following on from the last post, I wrote a quick function that (sort of) simulates individuals of species moving through a meta-community (sim.meta.comm), and then added something on top that simulates the evolution of those species (including generating a phylogeny; sim.meta.phy.comm). I also neatened up the creation of a phylogeny from what I’ve been calling an ‘edge matrix’ in my code (edge2phylo). The meta-community has different environmental conditions throughout it, and individuals can migrate at each time-step. There’s no competition in the model yet.

I expected this to be a nightmare, but as long as you use the steps that monitor the ecology of the species as a check for whether you need to do anything with the phylogeny, it actually turns out that simulating the phylogeny is easier when you’ve got ecological information than when you’re just doing the phylogeny alone. In this version, I don’t have any effect of species traits – that’s for next time.

The main conceptual point I took from this is the difficulty in deciding how to model stochasticity. It’s hard to get the environmental parameters on the same scale as the stochasticity and species abundance parameters, and as such I ended up doing everything with Poisson distributions which seemed rather strange to me. It’s quite worrying how easy it was to make environments where species all headed to extinction, apart from in very, very small patches of the environment before I got my head around it all.

Next time – competition and trait evolution within the same model! Then, and only then, will I move on to actually trying to estimate parameters of interest from all this…


Taxonomic cleaning and building phylogenies

The Uma Thurman wasp, courtesy of crazy taxonomist Donald Quicke (well, he's not that crazy, but there we go). Via geekosystem.

The Uma Thurman wasp, courtesy of taxonomist Donald Quicke. Have you any idea how hard it is to find a picture to accompany a post on taxonomy cleaning? Via geekosystem.

I spend most of my time cleaning up species names, and using them to build phylogenies (have I screamed the word phyloGenerator at you recently?). However, most of the time if you’ve got a pretty small species set and you’re studying something well-known, you can get away without building a tree at all if you’re smart with how you match all the names up.

A number of people have been emailing me asking for my taxonomy scripts, and so I’ve now pushed some phylogeny making and taxonomic cleaning scripts (based heavily on the code that ships with phyloGenerator, so please cite that if you use it) into willeerd. It takes a list of plant names, cleans them up, and then sticks them into a phylogeny you specify (I’d recommend this plant phylogeny). You can also use the functions congeneric.merge and make.composite.with.polytomies to put missing species into any kind of phylogeny, either based on genus names or based on binding groups (intended to be genera) in to replace something else in a phylogeny. They all, by default, follow the bladj algorithm, which is a very fancy way of saying that inserted nodes are evenly spaced wthin a clade.

If you’re going to use these functions, please be careful. Taxonomy != phylogeny, and there is no guarantee that using taxonomy to fill in for phylogeny won’t cause major, major problems. Indeed, if taxonomy were sufficient to fill in for phylogeny, you should ask yourself why you’re even trying to use a phylogeny in the first place. The dating of nodes within a phylogeny is really hard, and while there are excellent methods to try and correct for a lack of information, it’s still really hard. I’d strongly recommend using a program that incorporates DNA data (like phyloG– OK, I’ll shut up), and even then be careful. This stuff is hard for a reason…!

As with the plotting functions I put up a few posts back, I use this code quite a lot myself, so please don’t be surprised if it changes in the coming days/weeks/months. Let me know if there’s anything in particular you’d like to see up there – I take requests (this post is one), so just let me know.

Cartoon phylogenies and circular tip labels

A cartoon fan phylogeny with spaced-out tip labels. More fiddly to do than you might think!

A cartoon fan phylogeny with spaced-out tip labels. More fiddly to do than you might think!

I love the ape phylogenetics package, but nothing is perfect for everything and I sometimes find myself messing around a . I’ve put many of those modifications up onlineand written a quick ‘cartoon’ polytomy plotting script (cartoon.plot). The figure above shows off a few of the things (pretty polytomies, radially-spaced tiplabels) you can do with these functions.

It’s not very quick, but you can use it to automatically plot terminal polytomies as if they were just big ‘cartoon’ blocks, or you can specify tips and the function will find the monophyletic clade to group for you. The figure above uses the auto-detect feature, along with willeerd.tiplabel‘s radial.adj to put circles at distances around the phylogeny.

Maybe some of you are aware of this already, but you can use a line like

pp <- get("last_plot.phylo", envir = .PlotPhyloEnv)

…to get information about the last phylogeny you plotted. This makes manually adding things to tips and nodes much easier, because you don’t have to reverse-engineer where you think ape put them! I found this nugget while poking around inside ape and it’s made my life much easier!